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Downriver At A Glance - Thenewsherald.com

ICE stickers are available free at the city clerks office at City Hall, 16850 Southfield Road, for placement on the back of a cellphone. Animal licenses All dogs and cats at least 6 months old must have a license and be immunized against rabies before a license is issued. Residents are allowed a maximum of three pets per household. The cost of a license for one year is $5 at the city clerks office at City Hall, 16850 Southfield Road. Call 1-313-928-1144 for more information. Continued... See Full Story Seniors get fit A low-impact exercise class for those 50 and older is being offered at the community center, 15800 White Ave. Its $3 a class from 9 to 10 a.m. Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. On Mondays, the class uses exercise bands. Wednesdays feature hand weights and Fridays are for mat exercise. Call 1-313-928-0771 for more information. Lunchtime Lunch is available at 11:30 a.m. weekdays at the community center, 15800 White Ave., through Wayne Countys program for residents 60 and older. Reservations must be made one day in advance by calling 1-313-928-1775. The suggested donation is $2.25. Allen Park residents who are 60 or older and need homebound meals can call 1-800-851-1454 for details. City business The City Council meets at 6 p.m. the second and fourth Tuesdays of the month at City Hall, 16850 Southfield Road. Continued... The meetings are open to the public. Tai Chi classes Drop in classes of Tai Chi are offered at the Allen Park Community Center, 15800 White Ave. from 10 a.m. to 11 a.m. on Mondays and Fridays for $3.00 a class. Tai Chi is a series of slow movements accompanied by deep breathing. It is effective in improving balance, lowering blood pressure, reducing stress and increasing mental focus. Call 1-313-928-0771 for more information. BROWNSTOWN TWP. Ideas and suggestions for new Recreation Department programs always are welcome. Call 1-734-675-0920 for information on a program or event. Lunches available In cooperation with the Wayne County Office of Nutrition Services, hot lunches are available to those 60 and older. Lunch is served at noon weekdays at the community center, 21311 Telegraph Road. The suggested donation is $2.25 per day. Reservations must be made at 1-734-675-0920 before noon the day before. Food for homebound Hot lunches are available for delivery to qualified homebound seniors.
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Atmospheres for 'hot Jupiters' drier than expected - CSMonitor.com

That could be a problem for current theories of planet formation, which suggest that these planets should host far more water in their atmospheres than they do, according to a team of scientists that has measured the abundance of water in the atmospheres of three so-called hot Jupiters. The issue has important implications in an era when astronomers no longer are content to merely find new planets but are developing approaches and instruments to study them in greater detail. Theories of planet formation establish expectations that often underpin the design of instruments used to study such planets, notes Nikku Madhusudhan, a Cambridge University astrophysicist who led the team making the observations. Recommended: Are you a space whiz? Take our quiz! The ability to detect water a necessary ingredient for hosting organic life in the atmospheres of planets beyond the solar system is hard enough with hot Jupiters, which are large enough and hot enough for the telltale signs of water to be detected from Earth orbit. Photos of the Day Photos of the day 07/24 The problem grows more difficult when trying to spot the signs of water on Earth-mass planets in a sunlike star's habitable zone. The problem becomes even more challenging if the amount of water such planets have is far less than planet-formation theories predict. As for the James Webb Space Telescope , currently set for launch in October 2018, "no one has actually planned its instruments thinking that there would be less water than we expect," Dr. Madhusudhan says. But for studying hot Jupiters, that's not necessarily a problem. If the Hubble Space Telescope can make the measurements, the more-capable James Webb certainly will be able to as well, and with greater precision. But Earth-scale planets, especially at Earth-like distances from their host stars, will be difficult even for the James Webb telescope to study even if the abundance of water on such planets were to meet current theoretical expectations, Madhusudhan says. If the abundances are substantially less than theories predict, as a growing body of evidence suggests for some of these planetary systems, fully characterizing the atmospheres of these planets could await yet another generation of space telescopes. The general picture of planet formation, based on observations in our solar system and modeling, holds that bits and pieces of dust and debris in the disk of dust and gas surrounding a young star bump and gather until a chunk of material grows large enough to gravitationally capture yet more debris. For gas giants, at some point, this core of planet-to-be grows large enough that accretion goes into overdrive, allowing the burgeoning planet to sweep up yet more debris, gas, and ices. The theory also predicts that the relative abundance of chemical elements in the gas giant's atmosphere should be higher than the relative abundance of the same elements in the host star. Previous, less-precise measurements of water in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters hinted that the water present was below the so-called solar abundance. Madhusudhan and colleagues used the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes to hunt for water in the atmospheres of three planets WASP-12b , HD 189733b, and HD 209458b, which are in systems that range from 60 to 900 light-years away. All showed water concentrations well below solar abundances. For HD 209458b, the measurements were the most precise to date between 5 percent and 0.7 percent of solar abundance. The measurements were only 1 percent of solar abundance for WASP-12b and about 0.7 percent for HD 189733b, although the scientists acknowledge that for these two planets, their measurements were somewhat less precise and so the abundance of water on each could be closer to the solar abundance. The results have been accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. The results were surprising on two counts, the researchers say. The abundances were well below theoretical predictions. And water is predicted to be the most abundant molecule in a planetary atmosphere sporting the same abundances as the sun and at the temperatures encountered for these three planets. If these objects are well short of solar abundance for a molecule that should be dominant, are these planets' atmospheres also falling well short of other types of molecules?
For the original version including any supplementary images or video, visit http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2014/0724/Atmospheres-for-hot-Jupiters-drier-than-expected

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